Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantitative and Qualitative Research

By Demetrius Madrigal and Bryan McClain

Published: September 3, 2012

“Both qualitative and quantitative methods of user research play important roles in product development.”

Both qualitative and quantitative methods of user research play important roles in product development. Data from quantitative research—such as market size, demographics, and user preferences—provides important information for business decisions. Qualitative research provides valuable data for use in the design of a product—including data about user needs, behavior patterns, and use cases. Each of these approaches has strengths and weaknesses, and each can benefit from our combining them with one another. This month, we’ll take a look at these two approaches to user research and discuss how and when to apply them.

Quantitative Studies

“Statistical analysis lets us derive important facts from research data, including preference trends, differences between groups, and demographics.”

Quantitative studies provide data that can be expressed in numbers—thus, their name. Because the data is in a numeric form, we can apply statistical tests in making statements about the data. These include descriptive statistics like the mean, median, and standard deviation, but can also include inferential statistics like t-tests, ANOVAs, or multiple regression correlations (MRC). Statistical analysis lets us derive important facts from research data, including preference trends, differences between groups, and demographics.

Multivariate statistics like the MRC or stepwise correlation regression break the data down even further and determine what factors—such as variances in preferences—we can attribute to differences between specific groups such as age groups. Quantitative studies often employ automated means of collecting data such as surveys, but we can also use other static methods—for example, examining preferences through two-alternative, forced-choice studies or examining error rates and time on task using competitive benchmarks.

Quantitative studies’ great strength is providing data that is descriptive—for example, allowing us to capture a snapshot of a user population—but we encounter difficulties when it comes to their interpretation. For example, Gallup polls commonly provide data about approval rates for the President of the United States, as shown in Figure 1, but don’t provide the crucial information that we would need to interpret that data.

Figure 1—Quantitative data for Gallup’s presidential approval poll

Quantitative data for Gallup’s presidential approval poll

In the absence of the data that would be necessary to interpret these presidential job-approval numbers, it’s difficult to say why people approve or disapprove of the job that President Obama is doing. Some respondents may feel that President Obama is too liberal, while others may feel that he is too conservative in his actions, but without the necessary data, there is no way to tell.

Only someone with a firm grasp of how they should use and interpret quantitative statistics should conduct such a study.

In a product-development environment, this data deficiency can lead to critical errors in the design of a product. For example, a survey might report that the majority of users like 3D displays, which may lead to a product team’s choosing to integrate a 3D display into their product. However, if most users like only autostereoscopic 3D displays—that is, 3D displays that don’t require their wearing glasses—or like 3D displays only for watching sports or action movies on a television, using a 3D display that requires glasses for data visualization on a mobile device might not be a sound design direction.

Additionally, only someone with a firm grasp of how they should use and interpret quantitative statistics should conduct such a study. For most tests, there is an overreliance on the p-value and sample size. The p-value is a statistic that indicates the likelihood that research findings were the result of chance. If a p-value is less than .05, the findings are said to be statistically significant—meaning there is less than a 5% chance that the results were the result of chance.

It’s possible to manipulate a p-value by the sample size, but you need a sufficient sample size to have enough statistical power to determine whether a finding is accurate. If your study is underpowered because of its having two small a sample size, you may fail to achieve statistical significance—even if the finding is accurate. On the other hand, if you achieve statistical significance with a small sample size, you don’t need to increase your sample size; the finding is true regardless. While the small sample size makes it more difficult to determine something, if you are able to determine something with a small sample size, it’s just as true as if you made the finding with a large sample size.

By increasing the sample size, you can increase a finding’s statistical power, but perhaps to a point where the finding becomes less meaningful. There’s a common joke that a researcher can make any finding statistically significant simply by increasing the sample size. The reality is not too far off. However, it is possible to increase sample sizes to a point where statistical significance is barely meaningful. In such a situation, it is important to look at the effect sizea statistic that tells you how strongly your variables effect the variance.

Basically, statistical significance tells you whether your findings are real, while effect size tells you how much they matter. For example, if you were investigating whether adding a feature would increase a product’s value, you could have a statistically significant finding, but the magnitude of the increase in value might very small—say a few cents. In contrast, a meaningful effect size might result in an increase in value of $10 per unit. Typically, if you are able to achieve statistical significance with a smaller sample size, the effect size is fairly substantial. It is important to take both statistical significance and effect size into account when interpreting your data.

Qualitative Studies

“Qualitative research studies can provide you with details about human behavior, emotion, and personality characteristics that quantitative studies cannot match.”

Data from qualitative studies describes the qualities or characteristics of something. You cannot easily reduce these descriptions to numbers—as you can the findings from quantitative research; though you can achieve this through an encoding process. Qualitative research studies can provide you with details about human behavior, emotion, and personality characteristics that quantitative studies cannot match. Qualitative data includes information about user behaviors, needs, desires, routines, use cases, and a variety of other information that is essential in designing a product that will actually fit into a user’s life.

While quantitative research requires the standardization of data collection to allow statistical comparison, qualitative research requires flexibility, allowing you to respond to user data as it emerges during a session. Thus, qualitative research usually takes the form of either some form of naturalistic observation such as ethnography or structured interviews. In this case, a researcher must observe and document behaviors, opinions, patterns, needs, pain points, and other types of information without yet fully understanding what data will be meaningful.

Following data collection, rather than performing a statistical analysis, researchers look for trends in the data. When it comes to identifying trends, researchers look for statements that are identical across different research participants. The rule of thumb is that hearing a statement from just one participant is an anecdote; from two, a coincidence; and hearing it from three makes it a trend. The trends that you identify can then guide product development, business decisions, and marketing strategies.

Because you cannot subject these trends to statistical analysis, you cannot validate trends by calculating a p-value or an effect size—as you could validate quantitative data—so you must employ them with care. Plus, you should continually verify such data through an ongoing qualitative research program.

With enough time and budget, you can engage in an activity called behavioral coding, which involves assigning numeric identifiers to qualitative behavior, thus transforming them into quantitative data that you can then subject to statistical analysis. In addition to the analyses we described earlier, behavioral coding lets you perform a variety of additional analyses such as lag sequential analysis, a statistical test that identifies sequences of behavior—for example, those for Web site navigation or task workflows.�However, applying behavioral coding to your observations is extremely time consuming and expensive. Plus, typically, only very highly trained researchers are qualified to encode behavior. Thus, this approach tends to be cost prohibitive.

Additionally, because it is not possible to automate qualitative-data collection as effectively as you can automate quantitative-data collection, it is usually extremely time consuming and expensive to gather large amounts of data, as would be typical for quantitative research studies. Therefore, it is usual to perform qualitative research with only 6 to 12 participants, while for quantitative research, it’s common for there to be hundreds or even thousands of participants. As a result, qualitative research tends to have less statistical power than quantitative research when it comes to discovering and verifying trends.

Using Quantitative and Qualitative Research Together

“While quantitative and qualitative research approaches each have their strengths and weaknesses, they can be extremely effective in combination with one another.”

While quantitative and qualitative research approaches each have their strengths and weaknesses, they can be extremely effective in combination with one another. You can use qualitative research to identify the factors that affect the areas under investigation, then use that information to devise quantitative research that assesses how these factors would affect user preferences. To continue our earlier example regarding display preferences: if qualitative research had identified display type—such as TV, computer monitor, or mobile phone display—the researchers could have used that information to construct quantitative research that would let them determine how these variables might affect user preferences. At the same time, you can build trends that you’ve identified through quantitative research into qualitative data-collection methods and, thus verify the trends.

While this might sound contrary to what we’ve described above, the approach is actually quite straightforward. An example of a qualitative trend might be that younger users prefer autostereoscopic displays only on mobile devices, while older users prefer traditional displays on all devices. You may have discovered this by asking an open-ended, qualitative question along these lines: “What do you think of 3D displays?” This question would have opened up a discussion about 3D displays that uncovered a difference between stereoscopic displays, autostereoscopic displays, and traditional displays. In a subsequent quantitative study, you could address these factors through a series of questions such as: “Rate your level of preference for a traditional 3D display—which requires your using 3D glasses—on a mobile device,” with options ranging from strongly prefer to strongly dislike. An automated system assigns a numeric value to whatever option a participant chooses, allowing a researcher to quickly gather and analyze large amounts of data.


“When setting out to perform user research, … it is important to understand the different applications of these two approaches to research. ”

When setting out to perform user research—whether performing the research yourself or assigning it to an employee or a consultant—it is important to understand the different applications of these two approaches to research. This understanding can help you to choose the appropriate research approach yourself, understand why a researcher has chosen a particular approach, or communicate with researchers or stakeholders about a research approach and your overarching research strategy. The examples we’ve provided here provide just a small sampling of the many ways in which can analyze and employ qualitative and quantitative data. In what other ways do you use and combine qualitative and quantitative research?


The quantitative approach is so vital, even in our daily lives, because in most, if not all things we do in life, we measure to see how much there is of something.

Quantitative method is part of our daily life, even from birth, data are constantly being collected, assessed, and re-assessed as we grow.

I also support the quantitative data because it is much used and almost whatever we do involves it.

Yes. Both quantitative and qualitative research are important on their own. It depends on the situation where a researcher conducts a particular research, or he can go for the mixed method, too.

For now, I am in need of sampling and non-sampling errors. Please help me understand its applications and the ways that can be checked? Types of sampling and all related information on this chapter.

Expecting someone will help me on this soon.

Quantitative data provides the facts, but facts about people are just another construct of our society. For example, is something luxurious because it’s expensive or is it expensive because it’s luxurious? Business understands that neither method should be relied upon exclusively, which is why they use both. Anyone who thinks this is a competition between the two methods to somehow win out needs to read the article again. If you want to find out what happens when you think the only tool you need to make decisions in the social world is statistics, just type ‘New Coke’ into Google.

I also think that the quantitative approach is more important than the qualitative approach because we use it more and more in our life time.

I would suggest using both quantitative and qualitative. Both are strong ways of getting information and hearing the views and suggestions of others. It would be wiser to go for a mixed research method.

This quantitative approach is the approach used to show the transparency that at the end shows the democracy in the Great lakes countries. Thanks

Both methods are useful in real life situations. Which to use depends on the situation, and it’s not bad to combine both methods as this gives better and more accurate results.

Quantitative research requires high levels of statistical understanding to enable the measurements of descriptive and inferential statistics to be computed and interpreted, whereas qualitative methods are critical to identifying gaps in underserved areas in the society. More significantly, the use of a combination of the two is perfect.

Hi, I am Mark Jonson, and I am from New York, USA. Thanks for the article and wonderful example.

I am more confused when a particular method is considered superior over the other. I am more at ease looking at all three methods as situational—in that, some decision making requires the use of a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed method to accomplish my goals. For instance, it is suitable to use the quantitative method in studying birth and death rates in Europe and Africa, whereas the qualitative method suits a study on students’ behaviour relating to a particular course of study.

Like it.

I think both qualitative and quantitative are good to go by, because the demerits of one are settled by the merits of the other.

The lapses that one has are covered by the other, so I think, for better findings and more accurate results, a mixed method answers it all.

Wonderfully great to me

Good article, provides a good general overview. As a marketing-research consultant I want to stress that qualitative research helps you much more to collect insights for user stories—if you do SCRUM—get the reasons why that make you differ and not differ from competitors and that would allow you to positively stand out in the market. Quantification is great. I love the stats, measurements. Yet my clients get great stuff out of qual that quant could never deliver because it is tool for specific purposes—as qual is. If you have both in your toolbox and know how to handle them, you get a better product. Use them and use them wisely, know the strengths and weaknesses of both—or get someone who does—because your competitor might just do it right now.

Both methods play an equal role, especially in research, and may also influence each other. This will depend on time and the necessity for each method.

Both methods are relevant because they drive individuals to the same conclusions.

“On the other hand, if you achieve statistical significance with a small sample size, you don’t need to increase your sample size; the finding is true regardless.”

This is not true!

A significance level set to 0.05 (5%), implies that it is acceptable to have a 5% probability of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis. That is, one might observe statistical significance, regardless of sample size, but this may be a false positive—that is, the effect occurs by chance or due to the co-occurrence of other factors.

Low statistical power—because of small sample sizes, small effects, or both—negatively affects the likelihood that a nominally statistically significant finding—that is, finding of a p-value of ~.05—actually reflects a true effect. See this example.

In general, one should be cautious about making inferences based on results drawn from a small sample.

It must be remembered that the two methods are not competing. They complement each other. Employing both techniques is the surest way to get your research budget well spent.

Minini, Faith Harrison—In my opinion, all three research approaches—quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods—are very useful in informing UX practice. However, I prefer qualitative research for the reasons that studies are cheaper to embark on and the means of data collection and analysis are less stressful. However, employing both research approaches in any given study—especially studies involving large populations in countries’ health issues—provides the best results.

Thanks for the article. Both methods are useful, but it depends on the goal of the research.

I think qualitative research is best because it involves face-to-face conversation with the respondents. It gives true and reliable data as compared to quantitative research, because those researchers obtain data only from a given source and quantify it.

I need the advantages and disadvantages of using the T-test data collection method for the United States Parcel Service about their competition. I am not sure which is better for this, t-test or not, since t-test deals in small samples whereas UPS is global. I still have to know some disadvantages and advantages though.

It is process oriented. It is concerned with all that is going on in the teaching of the courses.

i think qualitative research gives you detailed information and really goes into knowing much about a phenomenon, unlike quantitative’s giving you statistics.

I think a qualitative approach is more imperative. It provides greater richness and more detailed information about a smaller number of people.

I think qualitative research is easier to make meaning from, as it simplifies the phenomena by giving details on the issues.

I beg to differ from most comments. I support qualitative research because of the quality of its results.

Good, indeed.

I now understand the concept of quantitative research. Thanks for your contribution.

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